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- Preface
- Contributors
- Kashmiri and the Linguistic Predicament
- Roots, Evolution and Affinity
- The Sharada Script
- The Dogri Language
- Gujari Language
- Sanskritic Impact
- The Balti Language
- Balti, Bodhi, Spiti & Lahuli Speeches
- Urdu in Jammu and Kashmir
- Hindi in Kashmir
- Language and Politics
- Appendix A
- Appendix B
- Appendix C
- Appendix D
- Select Bibliography
Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh - Linguistic Predicament

Edited by: P. N. Pushp and K. Warikoo
Himalayan Research and Cultural Foundation
Har-Anand Publications

The Balti Language
- by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi


Baltistan, actually a complex of beautiful valleys, is situated amid the famous ranges of Himalaya and Karakoram, straddling the river Indus, between Ladakh and Gilgit. Some of the highest peaks of the world - Chogo-ri (K-2), Mashabrum (K-1) and Gashabrum group of peaks besides beautiful glaciers like Sia-chen, Baltoro, Biafo and Chogo-lungma are situated in this region. The dimensions of Baltistan have been fluctuating over the course of history. It is currently smaller than ever before, with an area of 17,000 square kms. and an estimated population of 4,00,000. Baltistan consists of six major valleys like Skardo, Rongdo, Shigar, Khaplo, Kharmang and Gultari. Baltistan presents a beautiful contrast of high peaks, deep gorges, straddling glaciers, vast deserts, sandy plains, turquoise blue lakes, colourful panorama, lush green oases and villages.

Writers and historians of different nations have given different names to this region. The first historical reference appearing in Ptolemy's - BYALTAE- dates back to the 2nd century BC. The Chinese have named it Palolo, Palilo and Palor. Arabian historians such as Al-Beruni render it Balorthe Arabic version of the Chinese name, which was later Persianised as Baloristan. As the area is geographically located on the Tibetan plateau and for centuries remained a part of the Tibetan Empire, the majority of population being ethnically and linguistically of Tibetan origin, Indian historians have thus named it Little Tibet. The people themselves refer to their homeland as Balti-yul (Land of Baltis) which suggests a link with Ptolemy's BYALTAE. Baltistan is the Persian rendering of Balti-yul.

Historical Perspective

The first reference about the area (Baltistan) occurs in the Epic of King Gesar (Kesar), but in a fragmentary shape. Reliable historical records date from the last days of Palolashahi rulers of Baltistan (Palolo) who, according to some rock-inscriptions, ruled the area of Ladakh and Gilgit too from the 5th century to 727 AD. In 727 AD the Tibetan king Khri-Lde-gtsug-bRtan invaded Baltistan and in 737 AD the Tibetans conquered Brushal (modern Gilgit) annexing these to their empire. These areas remained provinces of the Tibetan empire till the death of the last king of Tibet Glang-Darma around 880/900 AD, when the foremost western provinces, Baltistan and Brushal became independent. Since then till the 12th century AD, Baltistan remained under several petty chiefs under the overlordship of the Shagari-tribe of Skardo. In 12/13th century AD, a young fugitive namely Ibrahim Shah, migrated to Baltistan from Iran via Kashmir, managed to obtain power in Skardo and founded the Maqpon Dynasty which subsequently ruled the area for twenty-four succeeding generations. During the reign of ninth Maqpon ruler namely Ghota-Cho-Senge, one Saint Syed Ali Hamadani introduced Islam to the region. In 1531 AD Sultan Saeed Khan, the ruler of Kashgar invaded Ladakh and Baltistan. Ali Sher Khan Anchan the most powerful king, fifteenth in the kings of the Maqpon Dynasty, conquered Ladakh and Western Tibet up to Purang in the east and Gilgit and Chitral in the west during his reign (1590-1625 AD).

Similarly his grandson Shah Murad conquered all these areas for the second time between 1655-1680 AD. For about two hundred years all these areas remained tributaries to the Maqpon kings of Baltistan. A comparatively new, more graceful culture and tradition of fine-arts flourished during this era. The Maqpon kings were great patrons and admirers of the new culture and society. In 1779 AD the Afghans of Kashmir invaded Skardo but could not sustain their control any longer. In 1840 AD the Dogras of Jammu conquered Baltistan and annexed it to their State, but in 1947-48 AD the area was annexed to Pakistan. However, Pakistan has maintained its status as the disputed area of Kashmir.

Language and Its Origin

The population of Baltistan is a heterogeneous mixture of ethnic groups. Tibetans form the principal ethnic group in the area accounting for 60 per cent of the population.

The language spoken by the entire population of Baltistan is called -BALTI- which is an archaic dialect of Tibetan language. At present Balti has been heavily influenced by Burushaski, Turkish and Urdu and affected by Muslim literature in Persian. With the result.it has deviated from the original Tibetan language.

The language spoken in Baltistan, generally known as BALTI is originally a Tibetan dialect. According to Professor Jampal Gyathso, a Chinese Scholar and expert in Epic of king Gesar and a Khampa (Tibetan) by origin, the present Balti has all the linguistic characteristics and roots from Tibetan language. According to his initial survey Balti resembles more the Kham dialect than other Tibetan dialects of U and Thsang and Amdo etc. He further suggests that either the first Tibetan settlers of Baltistan could be the Khambas or at least majority of the settlers were Khambas. The people of Baltistan, dubbed as -mini Tibet-, are related to the Tibetans and their language is a branch of the Tibetan language and retains many features of archaic Tibetan pronounciation. Reverand H.A. JASCKE too has defined Balti as one of the western most-Tibetan dialect. In his Tibetan-English Dictionary (First Indian Reprint Delhi 19751980) he defines it as "Bal (Balti), the most westerly of the districts in which the Tibetan language is spoken". Many other scholars also are of the view that Balti is a Tibetan dialect and not a separate language from the Tibetan.


Like other Tibetan dialects, Balti had no script of its own till the Tibetans managed to create a script for their language and simultaneously introduced the same by the Tibetan Lamas and other learned people. In 727 AD when King Khri Lde-gTsug-Brtan conquered Baltistan and annexed it to his State, the Tibetan script was formally introduced as official script through their offices, religious books and rockinscriptions. The famous (Mandala) carving and the Tibetan inscription on a rock in village Manthal near Skardo town, which dates back to early 8th century AD is one of the best examples of these efforts. Till that time there was no difference between the Tibetan dialects of Lhasa or central Tibet and Baltistan; therefore, the Baltis faced no problem in reciprocal communication and usage. It is worth mentioning here that before the invasion of Tibetans, in 727 AD, the official language of Palolashahis and the clergy too was "Brahmi", which was brought into the area after the 4th legendary Buddhist Conference in jalandhar. We still find many rock-inscriptions (5th & 6th centuries) in the Brahmi script. However, the Tibetans spread their script with all their zest and zeal. This (Tibetan) script remained in use for the Balti till the 16th century AD when a strong opposition routed it away from the area and instead, the Mullahs persuaded the Balti masses to use the Persian script for Balti, but they never endeavoured to form fully corresponding Persian letters for Balti. Moreover, when the Maqpon Dynasty rose to its climax in the 16th century AD and they developed a strong political and cultural
relationship with the Moghuls of India, they used Persian instead of Balti language for their offices and subsequently the Balti language including its script lost the strongest patron. The Dogras of Jammu conquered Baltistan in 1840 AD and annexed it to their State. Since Pakistan took it over in 1948 AD, Urdu has flooded over all the local dialects /languages including Balti. In the modem times Balti has no names /vocabulary for dozens of newly invented and introduced things, therefore, Urdu and English names/ words are being used in Balti.


The present Balti language or Balti form of Tibetan language is spoken in the whole of Baltistan and it is said that Purki-dialect of Purig and Suru-Kartse valleys come in to the Balti group linguistically. However, at the moment nearly 0.04 million people living in Baltistan and about 0.01 million Baltis who live in different cities of Pakistan and working abroad speak Balti.


The Balti language has always been at a disadvantage. As mentioned earlier it had to change the script from the original to an artificial one (Persian) which never corresponded with the letters and requirements of the Balti with the result that it lost its standard and Tibetan originality. Its folk-literature is not yet available in written-shape; but continues to be orally transmitted. On the contrary the Balti has been quite promising in the sense of literature in category, aptitude and profundity. It is worth mention here that, despite all handicaps the Balti language has retained may honorific words like all the Tibetan dialects and many other languages. Below are a few examples:

Ordinary Balti Honorific Ladakhi Meaning
Ata  Baba Aba Father
Ano/Amo  Zizi Ama Mother
Kaka  Kacho Acho Brother (elder)
Dustring  Zung Nama Wife
Momo  Jangmocho Ajang Maternal uncle
Nene  Nenecho Ane Aunt
Bu  Bucho Tugu Son
Fru  Nono   Boy
Apo  Apocho Meme Grand father
Api  Apicho Abi Grand mother
Ashe  Ashcho Singmo Sister (elder)
Zo  bjes Zo Eat.
Thung  bjes Thung Drink.
Ong  Shokhs Yong Come
Zer  Kasal-byung Zer Speak/Say
Ngid tong  gZim tong  Ngid tong Sleep (go to)
Lagpa  Phyaq-laq/g Lagpa Hand/Arm.
Khyang Yang/Yari-phyaqpo Khyorang You.

Though Balti has remained under adverse conditions, even then it has proved to be a very fertile language capable of creating several categories/ kinds of folk and classical literature. We do not find any prose except Proverbs (in hundreds) and some Epics and Sagas (of King Kesar/Gesar, Rgyalucho-Lo-bZang and Rgyalu-Srasbu and some others), all in oral tradition. All other literature is in verse. The Balti literature has adopted numerous Persian styles of verse and vocables also wluch have amplified the beauty and melody of its poetry.

The Balti Literature may be categorised as under

A Brief Introduction to Balti Verse

1. Rgya-glu: It can be categorised as a classical one in the folk-verses for its meaning or deepness. It contains romantic songs, elegies, advice, complaints and historical events etc.
2. Rtse-glu: It a light type of poetry sung while dancing. In these songs different topics and events of life, families and their social or cultural conditions/ status and jokes etc. are narrated /explained.
3. Yurmi-glu: It is the song which is sung by the women-folk while working or weeding in the fields. In such sons women recollect their child-hood, love and longing for her parents, pleasant or unpleasant experience or feelings about her husband or other relatives.
4. Ridagsi-glu: These are the songs composed in praise of mountain-goats (of all sort). Some songs admire the beauty of wild-life, some depict motherhood in these animals for their kids and in some the poets lament the extinction of goats and sheep.
5. Bar-glu: It can be described as the medieval stage between the Rgya-glu and the modern poetry (glu) and it is also called Deewan. This type of poetry also covers romantic and other general events.
6. Glu: It can be described as the mGul-glu as it has only romantic feelings and flavour.
7. Hamd: It is the form of verses in praise of God.
8. Qaseeda: These are verses in praise of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the (12) Imams, their family members (peace be upon them) according to Shiait faith of Islam.
9. Marsia: Versed elegy commemorating the great martyrdom of Holy Imam Hussain (the grandson of Muhammad (PBUH), the 3rd Imam) in Karbala and other Imams etc.
10. Noha: These are versed elegies sung with rhythm while the (Shiaite) mourners beat their chests. This category is also peculiarly attributed to the martyrs of Karbala and other family members of Holy Prophet (PBUH).
11. Bahr-e-Taweel: These verses are in long metre and consist of several stanzas of 9 to 14 lines. In this poetry, generally, the mortality of our life and other similar topics are discussed in a mystic way.
12. Goshwara: It is like the Persian or Urdu "Masnavi" Narrative couplets. In this usually the dignity and illustrious personalities and deeds of the Holy Prophet (Muhammad PBUH) and the Holy Imams (PBUT) are narrated with fervour.
13. Ghazal: These are the odes of love and romance exactly on the principles of Persian and Urdu Ghazal and Nazm.
14. Sa-get-pi-glu: These are the songs praising or encouraging the farmers and agriculturists in modern time.
15. Milli-naghma: These are like Urdu Milli-naghmas.
Some Prominant Bales Poets

We know very little about the Balti poets of ancient times except one person, "Al-bDe", but neither is his exact period known nor do we know his personal details. However, from the essence of his poetry and the language he has used we infer that he belonged to the time when Islam through Persian language and poetry had not yet affected the Abalti language and Poetry. We find only the Ridagsi-glu from him. Since the fall of Baltistan in 1840 AD, we find several high-calibre poets who have treated different subjects and categories. Some of them are as under :

1. Muhib (Prince Hussain Ali Khan). He was the youngest son of the last independent ruler of Baltistan-Ahmad Shah Maqpon who was deposed and was deported to Jammu by the Dogras with his father while he passed away in Tral, District Pulwama, Kashmir. He wrote poetry in the Marsia form and is considered to be the Anees of Baltistan.
2. Zakir (Prince Muhammad Ali Khan). He was the grandson of king Ahmad Shah Maqpon, son of Prince Lutf Ali Khan (Aashiq) and nephew of "Muhid". He was born. in Tral and expired there in exile. He was a poet of Qaseeda.
3. Baba Johar. He was from Haldia, a village of the Khaplo valley. His date of birth is not known, but he was alive in 1890 AD. He was a "Darwesh" following the Imamia Nurbakhslua traditions of Shiaite Faith. His field of poetry was Bahre-e-Taweel.
4.  Syed Abbas of Shigar. He was born in 1846 AD in the Shigar valley of Baltistan. He was an excellent poet of the Qaseeda and the Goshwara.
5. Akhond Khuda Yar. His specific field of poetry was Bahr-e-Taweel and his verses on the Pologame comparing it with struggle in our life and its consequences is very famous.
6. Wahid (Muhammad Ali Khan). He was a very popular poet of the Ghazal and was successful dramatist writing for the Radio. He expired in Islamabad in 1985 AD.
7. Saba (Muhammad Ali Shah). He was born in Shigar (Baltistan) on 31st July 1924 and belongs to the former ruling family of Shigar valley-the Amacha. He is the most popular and respected poet of present time. His field of poetry is Ghazal and Qaseeda.
8. Hasni (Ghulam Hassan). A promising young poet of Balti as well as Urdu he is adept in every field of poetry, but his speciality is the Ghazal.
9. Hakeem (M. Hassan). He also is a very promising poet, famous for his archaic and classical touches.
Affinities with other Languages

All the languages and dialects of the mountain region in the north of Pakistan including Burushaski and Shina belong to the Indian or Persian group of languages, but the Balti is the only language which belongs to the "Tibeto-Burman" branch of "Sino-Tibetan" group of languages. Basically it has nothing in common with them except some words absorbed later on, owing to interaction of masses. Apparently, Balti is, at the moment, cut off from its sister-languages of Ladakh but has 80-90 per cent of nouns, pronouns, verbs and other literary and gramatical character in common except those few which made their place in Balti afterwards. We can, however, term Balti and Bodhi of Ladakh as separate dialects, but not separate languages.


The major problem of the Balti language is that it had to disconnect the relationship with its radical centre, Tibet, owing to political divisions and strong religious differences since last 500 years and even from its immediate neighbour Ladakh for the last 50 years. It has been left at the mercy of other languages and literatures which are stronger in quantity and vocabulary. The other major problem is the abandoning of its original script-Tibetan and during the last 500 years it has not been able to adopt a suitable script so far. This critical and adverse situation knocked away Balti from its original stream or natural track and left as an astray animal. At the moment neither the Baltis have the awareness to revive their original script nor there is any institution which could restore it and persuade the people to use it again. And the third problem is those Persian and Urdu letters which do not exist in Tibetan which have become now un-avoidable in some cases. There is an urgent need to establish a Forum to, at least, carry out initial efforts to revive its original status.


The following similarities between Balti and Ladakhi call for attention:
Balti Words Ladakhi English
mGo  mGo Head
Mik Mig Eye
Laqpa Lagpa Hand/arm
Khap  Khap Needle
Skutpa Skutpa Thread
Karfo Karpo White
Naqpo  Nagpo Black
Marpho Marpo Red
Shing Shing Wood /timber
Chu  Chu Water
Khi Khi Dog
Bila Bila Cat
Kha  Kha Mouth
Chharpha Chharpa Rain
Khnam nam Sky
Sa  Sa Soil/earth
bZo Zo Cross of Yak & Cow.
Da Da Arrow
gju  gju Bow
Kangma Kangpa Leg/foot
Zermong Sermo Knail
Api  Abi Grand-mother/old w.
Ashe Ache Elder sister
Bang Balang Cow
Byango  Chamo Hen/chicken 
Ong Yong Come
Mendoq Metoq Flower
Nang-Khangma Nang-Khangpa House (holds)
Shoq-shoq Shugti Paper.
Garba Gra Blacksmith
Shingkhan  Shingkan Carpenter
Bras  Das Rice
Bakhmo  Paghma Bride
Nene Ane Aunt
Khlang Langto Bull/ox
Stare  Stari Axe
gZorba gZora Sickle
Khshol Shol Plough
Baqphe  Paghphe  (Wheat) Floor.
Skarchen Skarchhen Star (large & bright)
Namkhor  Namkhor Cloudy

A few sentences:
Balti Ladakhi English
Diring ngima tronmo yod Diring ngima tonmo yod The day/sun is warm to-day.
Ringmo thaqpa gnis khyong  Ringmo thagpa gnis khyong Bring two long ropes.
Ra lug kun tshwa kher  Ra lug kun tshwa kher Take the goats & sheep for grazing.
Zgo karkong kun ma phes  Zgo karkong kun ma phes  Don't open the doors and ventilators.
Kushu chuli yod na zo Kushu chuli yod na zo If there is (some) apple & appricot eat (it).
Ragi phali yod na khyong Ralgri phali yod na khyong If there is (any) sword & shield (please bring them).


Influence of other languges on Balti

As mentioned above, Balti language has absorbed several Burushaski, Shina and Kashmiri words, but simultaneously Balti has also left an impact on Burushaski and Shina. Following are a few examples of such words used by each other:
Balti  Burushaski Meaning
Bayu  Payu Salt
Dango  Danggo Wooden cabin for storage.
Mayon  Mayon Oriol
Qao  Qao Hey (calling some-one).
Dim  Dim Body of a man /trunk of a tree.
Gachi  Gashik A (small) stick to beat animal and children.
Ghashep  Khashep Magpie
Gut Gut A dumb & deaf person.
Api  Api Grand-mother/old woman.
Zizi Zizi Mother (honorofic)
Bras  Bras Rice (cooked & uncooked).
Bilbil Bilbil Full (cup/utencils)
Balbul  Balbulo Warm (water/liqud).
Laqphis Laqphis Handkerchief.
Chha  Chha  Millet.
Brangsa Brangsa A camp (site, house etc).
mTshan-zar  Tshan-zar A meal before dawn (by Muslims in Fasting month).
Thur  Thur Whip.
Chhu-mKhang  Choghang Toilet with bath.
Preko  Preko A special vessel for washing hands.
Pholing Phololing Wild mint.
Mulo  Mulo Turnip.
Bro  Bro Buckwheat.
Byarpha Byarpa Poplar (tree).

Balti Shina Meaning
Thur  Thur Whip.
Ju  ju Yes (hono)
Mulo  Mulo Turnip.
Tsong  Tsong Onion.
Momo  Momo Maternal uncle.
Chhastan  Chhastan Mat (made of millet straw).
Khsamba  Khsamba Thoughts/to think.
Pul  Phul Sodium.
Bro  Bro Buckwheat.
mThod  Thod Turban.
mTshir  Tshir Line.
Lche-khat  Lche-khat  Stammerer.
Thaldum  Thaldum Dust.
Trangpa  (Srangpa) Trangpa Village headman (official)
Bwar  Bwar Water-melon.
Chadkha  Chadkha A promise /certainity.
Kangtse  Kangtse Socks.


1. Chogo-ri is a Tibetan word which means the big/high mount and is called Karakoram-2 (K-2). It is the 2nd highest peak in the world with a height of 8611 mtrs.
2. Mashabrum or Karakoram-1 (K-1), is 7821 mtrs.
3. Gashabrum group i.e. G-1 (Hidden peak) 8068, G-2 8035, G-3 7952 and G-4 7925 mtrs.
4. Siachen is a Tibetan word which means a (place) having many wildroses. It is 75 kms. long and 5 to 10 kms. wide.
5. Baltoro is situated in the heart of the Karakoram and is called the Throne-room of Mountain
Gods. This glacier is 58 kms. long and most of the highest peaks of Karakoram are situated around it.
6. Biafo is also a beautiful glacier having a length of the 69 kms and the world's famous "Snow-lake" is situated at the head of this glacier.
7. Chogo-lungma is a beautiful glacier 30 kms. in length. It means a big valley.
8. King Gesar Epic is pronounced by Baltis as Kesar. This epic is also very popular in Baltistan as in other Tibetan areas.
9. Palolashahi is a Chinese epithet to the rulers of Palclo areas i.e. Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgi(4/5th Century to 727 A.D.). It seems to be a combination of Chinese Palolo or Palor and Persian Shahi. Local name of this ruling dynasty is not known.
10. These rock inscriptions are found in the Gilgit area.
11. He was the first Tibetan king who invaded Balti or Palolo area in 727 A.D. and conquered it.
12. According to the Tibetan-English Dictionary of reverened Jascke, Brushel is the "name of a countrv to the west of Tibet, bordering on Persia". It is the ancient and original name of the present Gilgit area.
13. The last and the famous Bon king of Tibet.
14. Shagari means "white-skinned" in Balti. These were the descendants of those Greeks who migrated to the Karakoram from Bactria after the death of Alexander the Great. They are one of th, prominant ethnic group in Baltistan.
15. According to Hashmatullah Khan the compiler of "Tareekli-a Jammu etc." Ibrahim Shah was a fugitive prince of Egypt. He and his elder brother (with some other companions) managed to escape and arrived in Kashmir and having an opportunity got the throne of Kashmir, but very soon they had to take refuge in the mountains and Ibrahim Shah arrived in Skardo and thereafter marrying the Shagari princess he founded the Maqpon dynasty. According to Hashmatullah, Ibrahim Shah arrived in Skardo at the end of 12th or in the beginning of 13th Century A.D. At that time the Fatimids (Caliphs) were ruling in Egypt but we do not get any historical evidence that any prince(s) of Fatimids took refuge towards India or Kashmir and they got the throne of Kashmir even for a couple of days.
16. Its correct pronounciation is Maqpa which means a son-in-law in Balti/Tibetan. Founder of the dynasty, Ibrahim Shah married the only daughter of the old Shagari ruler of Skardo and was called Maqpa. After the death of the old chief Maqpa, Ibrahim Shah became the ruler and thus Maqpon dynasty started.
17. Well known as "Amir Kabir", he was the first Muslim preacher who ever visited the Karakoram and spread Islam.
18. He was the son of Ghazi Mir-14th ruler of Maqpon dynasty. According to local traditions Ghazi Mir died when Ali Sher Khan was a child and he (Ali Sher Khan) had to flee to India where he succeeded in attracting the attention of Akbar the Great. Akbar deputed him with his army on some military operation. Thus Ali Sher Khan learnt sufficient war tactics and with the help of Akbar he got back his hereditary state of Skardo. With his extra-ordinary capability and intelligence he expanded his State from Western Tibet to Chitral. He was married to a Moghul princess "Gul Khatoon." One of his daughter was married with Prince Saleem (later Emperor Jahangir). In addition to his very successful military adventures, he was an engineer king of high calibre. We still have several remains of forts, channels, gardens and protecting-walls
19. In the reign of Maqpon Sultan Murad (1745-1780 A.D.) the Afghan Governor of Kashmir, Haji Karim Dad Khan deputed an army in 1779 A.D. under the command of Murtaza Khan who defeated Sultan Murad and received big amount in kind and cash and later returned to Kashmir.
20. Gulab Singh the ruler of Jammu under the command of Wazir Zorawar Singh invaded Baltistan in 1840 A.D. and with the help of Ali Sher Khan-the Raja of Kharmang valley, the Dogras arrested Maqpon Ahmad Shah the Ruler of Little Tibet (Baltistan) and deported him to Jammu. This was the end of Maqpon rulers.
21. To have a better idea of the ethnic groups of Baltistan please consult my research article "The ethnic groups of Baltistan" read in the International Seminar on the Anthropology of Tibet and the Himalaya-Sept. 1990 at the Ethnographic Muslum of the University of Zurich.
22. Professor Jampel with other two Chinese Scholars visited Skardo in Nov. 1994.
23. Maqpon kings from Ali Sher Khan Anchen to Shah Murad had very close political relationship with the Mughal emperors, Akbar, Jahangir and Shahjahan.
24. Three years ago Yusuf Hussainabadi (Skardo) has written a booklet on Balti language and has tried to produce the Persian letters with some signs for Balti but it has also proved unsuccessful.
25. At the time of fall of Skardo he was only 9 years old. He was also made a captive and taken to Ladakh-Toghla-Khar-Ladakh-Jammu with his father.
26. He was the 24th and the last king of Maqpon Dynasty. He was enthroned in 1800 A.D. and dethroned in 1840 A.D. At the time of his arrest he was 65 years old.
27. He was the first Balti who ever translated the English Bible (Matthew) into Balti (written in Persian script) for the Missionaries in Baltistan in 1930s.


1. Abbas Kazmi. 1984. Balti Lok Geet Published by National Institute of Folk Heritage, Islamabad.
2.-do- 1982.Yato, a Balti Folk song published in Boloristan the annual Magazine of Govt. Degree College, Gilgit.
3.-do- 1987."Kesar Dastan" an introductory paper on the Epic of King Kesar/Gesar found in Baltistan published in Quarterly Adabiyat of Academy of Letters, Islamabad.
4.-do- 1994. "Hazrat Muhib ki Marsia-nigari" published in Adabiyat,Islamabad.
5.A.H. Dani 1989. Islamic Architecture. Published by National Hijra Council, Islamabad.
6. Bielmeier R. 1988. The reconstruction of the stop series and the verbal system in Tibetan-a paper published in "Languages and History in the east Asia", Kyoto.
7. -do 1982. Problems of Tibetan dialectology & language history with special reference to the SKYID-GRON dialect-a research paper for Seminars fur Sprach and Kultuwissenschaft, Universitat Bonn.
8. -do- 1985. A survey of the development of western and southern Tibetan dialects. Published in Soundings in Tibetan Civilization edited by B.N. Aziz, New Delhi.
9. H.A. Jaschke 1881. Tibetan English Dictionary (Indian re-print).
10.Haji. Q. Beg 1980. Tareekh Ahd Ateeq Riyasat Hunza.
11. Bielmeier R. 1988. On Tone in Tibetan-a research paper for 4th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies-Munich 1985.
12. Kacho Sikandar. 1987. Qadeem Ladakh.
13. Muhammad Hassan. 1992. Tareekh Adabiyat Baltistan.
14. Muhammad Yusuf Hussainabadi. 1984. Baltistan par ek nazar, Skardo.
15. Muhammad Yusuf Hussainabadi 1990. Balti Zaban, Skardo.
16. Jettmar Karl. 1980. (Reprint). Bolor & Dardistan. Published by N.I.F.H. Islamabad.
17. Mahmood Azad. 1970. Tareekh Kashmir. Published by Compiler.
18.Muhammad Q. Naseem. 1994. Baltistan-Tareekh-o-Siasat. Published by Progressive Publishers, Lahore.
19. Michiyo Hoshi. 1978. Zanskar Vocabulary, Published by Institute for the Study of Languages and culture of Asia & Africa, Tokyo.
20. Norbu Chophel. 1985. New English Tibetan Dictionary, New Delhi.
21.Tashi-Tshering. 1988. English Tibetan Chinese Dictionary, Beijing.
22. Read, F.C. 1939. Balti Grammar, London.
23. Roerich, G.N. 1978. (Revised) Text book of colloquial Tibetan, India.
24.Molvi Hashmatullah Khan. 1968 (Reprint). Tareekh Jammu, Lahore.
25.Rohit Vohra. 1987. An old route across Karakoram Mountain U.S.1. Journal, India.
26.Molvi Hashmatuallh Khan. A manuscript/file written and signed by the author and preserved in Revenue Record Room, Skardo.
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